Monday, March 26, 2012

Final paper

Final Paper

Rebekah Morris

March 26, 2012

Ashford University
EDU 645
Assessment Plan
            The purpose of creating this assessment plan is to ensure the learning of numbers, one through ten, by kindergarten students. Within this plan there will be the learning objectives, the assessments, and a rubric to assess the students’ learning. The learning objective is what is being focused on, in the teaching, the activities prior, and the assessment. The assessment is created to test the learning objective, in a variety of ways. Finally, the rubric is created to objectively look at the overall student performance on the assessment. Using this assessment plan will ensure that the students have achieved the knowledge that has been taught.

Learning Outcome
The students will write numbers one through ten in numerical order.

Assessment Context
Follow the steps below:
Write numbers one through ten in the squares.
Cut out all of the squares.
Count the stars in each circle.
Glue the number that matches the stars in the circle.
Glue the circles in order on the number strip.

Holistic Rubric

Clearly Outstanding
(Above benchmark)
Below average
(Below Benchmark)

Writing numbers 1-10





Gluing the correct number to the correct number of stars.




The students will be able to put the numbers in numerical order.



Total points (9)

Testing Constraints
            This assessment has very structured statements, directions, and steps to follow. This will make sure that all students are completing an assessment that can be compared to other’s assessment.
With any assessment, it is important to have a set method of how the test will be administered. This will decrease the possible errors on this assessment, making it a more reliable and accurate assessment of a student’s knowledge.
            The first step is to ensure the classroom is set up in a way to assess, not to teach. With that being said, in a kindergarten classroom, there are often numbers around the room in numerical order. These posters, number strips, nametags, and anything else which would help the students on this assessment, would need to be covered. This makes sure the test is a clear assessment of what the student knows, not what the student can duplicate.
            The second step is to ensure the assessment is given in the same manner as all the other assessments. In my classes, the students know to always have a privacy folder up before the test is passed out; they know to have all the materials out that is on the board; and they know the order in which the assessment is given. There are steps that are taken every single time we take a test. First, we make sure we have all the materials. Second, I pass out the assessments and the students put their names on it right away. Third, we read through the directions together. Fourth, we answer any and all questions students have on the assessment. Fifth, we take two deep breaths. Finally, the students begin the assessment. During the assessment, the students are to not talk, keep their eyes inside their folder, and are to do their best. When the students finish, they know to stay in their seats, put their privacy folder on top of their test and read quietly until everyone is finished. With these steps in place, the administration errors are minimized.
Effective classroom instruction usually has a three-stage model of classroom measurement in place for each lesson  (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). Within this model there are three essential stages: instructional objectives, instructional activities, and testing (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). Authors Kubiszyn and Borich state that “any good classroom test begins with your objectives” (2010). These three steps of the model are all intertwined: the tests are composed from the objectives; the objectives are created from the standards; the activities are made to support the learning of the objectives for the test (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010).
The first and most important step to begin with is the instructional objectives. With these objectives, the teacher has clear expectations for what the students will learn during the lesson (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The instructional objectives are usually created from educational goals, state standards, and curriculum (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). I chose to have the objective for a kindergarten classroom, to be about number sense, which falls under the Colorado state standards (Colorado Department of Education, 2011). Using this objective, there are a variety of formative assessments, activities, and worksheets that can be used to teach and learn the aspects of numbers (Colorado Department of Education, 2011). Having the student practice writing numbers one through ten, having the students match numbers to objects, and having the student order numbers are all pieces of the learning objective (Colorado Department of Education, 2011). Using these aspects as smaller pieces of study throughout the unit will prepare the students for their assessment.
The assessment is a multiple level assessment, both cognitively and compiles on top of itself. The first step is to write numbers one through ten in the squares. This is working the knowledge cognition of the student. The student must be able to know the numbers but also be able to reproduce the numbers. For the students who are only at this cognitive level, it allows for them to have success (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The next step is to cut out the squares which have the numbers on them. This will do two things for the students. First it will help with the fine motor skills that the students are still developing. The second thing it will do, is to mix up the numbers, making them show they truly know what number connects with the next step. The next step is to count the stars in each circle. This will work on their counting ability, which is key for the students’ knowledge of number sense. The next step is to glue the number that matches the stars in the circle. After the student has cut out all of the squares, the numbers are mixed up on the table. The student then has to know what number is written on each of the squares in order to match them to the number of stars. This is a deeper cognitive level of thinking, for the students to not only be able to write the number but to also understand what their writing stands for (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The last step is to glue the circles in numerical order on the number strip. This is another cognitive level deeper, making them be able to sequence the numbers (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). Having all of these steps in the assessment allows the complete evaluation of understanding of numeracy by a given student.
The next step of this assessment process is to create a rubric for assessing the student’s performance (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). Since this assessment has a variety of aspects, steps, and cognitive levels, it was important to not grade strictly every single aspect (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). “Holistic scoring is used when the rater is more interested in estimating the overall quality of the performance and assigning a numerical value to that quality than assigning points for the addition or omission of a specific aspect of performance”  (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010, pg 198). Since this type of assessment is not an all or nothing type of test, it was important to use a rubric which would evaluate the overall ability, skills, and cognitive level (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The first aspect to look at and evaluate is the student’s knowledge cognitive level (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). Before the student can succeed at any higher level of thinking, it is important that the student has mastered this level (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). For this level, the student must show that they have the knowledge of numbers and being able to write numbers (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). It does not take a deeper level of thinking for a student to be able to do this portion of the assessment; hence why it is the first part of the holistic rubric (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The next piece of the rubric and assessment will evaluate a student’s understanding of the numbers. This part takes a deeper cognitive level, comprehension, in order to be able to connect the circle to the correct number (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The student must prove that they know, not only how to write the numbers, but what each number truly means. This is the next portion of the rubric, to assess a deeper understanding of the numbers (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The last portion of the assessment and rubric, is the deepest level of thinking; which is the application portion (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The students, who have already shown that they can comprehend the numbers and what they stand for, are then to use their number sense to sequence the numbers. This is the highest cognitive level of the assessment.
Since there are higher and lower levels of assessment, number sense, and cognitive development, it is important to compare their products to a benchmark level (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). “It is important for the rater to have a model paper that exemplifies each score category. After having created or selected these models from the set to be scored, the rater again reads each paper and then assigns each to one of the categories” (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010, pg 199). Having each of these different categories compared to just that cognitive level allows for a student to succeed on their level (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). If a teacher were simply to evaluate this assessment on whether it was correct or not, it would not factor in all the components of learning. It is important to look at the simple pieces as well as the more difficult individually.
Since the assessment and the rubric both are created to ensure the evaluation of a student’s understanding of the learning objective, it is equally as important to make sure the assessment environment is appropriate and conducive to evaluating. Since I wanted to eliminate any errors of accuracy for this assessment, it was important to include Testing Constraints. Within this section of the assessment plan, there are a variety of constraints that will ensure this assessment is the most reliable, accurate, and valid (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The first step of the constraints was to make sure the test was valid; “does the test measure what it is supposed to measure?”  (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010, pg 329). Since the test is created to test all the aspects of writing numbers and sequencing them, the learning objectives, then the assessment is valid (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The next step is to make sure it is reliable; “does the test yield the same or similar score rankings consistently?”  (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010, pg 329). The test can be evaluated within itself, to ensure it is reliable. Last, is it accurate; “does the test score fairly closely approximate an individual’s true level of ability, skill, or aptitude?”  (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010, pg 329). In order for this to be true, there must a handle on the possible errors of the assessment, hence the rest of the constraints (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). These are created to make sure that the assessment is showing a student’s true potential, not their ability to copy off the wall or a neighbor (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The second part of the constraints will have the student’s have a set test-taking environment to which they are accustomed. Since the test is valid, reliable, and fairly accurate, it seems like the constraints are making the assessment the best possible for evaluating the student’s skills.
Throughout this assessment plan, there are several factors which were created to evaluate a student’s level of understanding. The learning objective, the first step in creating lessons, activities, and assessments, states that the students will write numbers one through ten in numerical order. From here, there was the creation of the assessment. This assessment tests multiple cognitive levels of understanding, from knowledge to application (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). Using a variety of skills to assess these levels lets students shine in their own ways. The next aspect was to create a rubric to evaluate how the students did on the assessment (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). Since the assessment tested a variety of skills as well as a variety of cognitive levels, it was important to have each skill and cognitive level a separate point value (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2010). The assessments are compared to other assessments from that category level, for the best scoring. Finally, it was important to create some test constraints, which will ensure that the test is valuating a student’s true potential. From the test, to the walls, to the routine, these constraints will help the test evaluate the student’s understanding of the learning objective. From the learning objective, to the assessment, to the test constraints, this assessment plan was created to create the best possible evaluation.


Colorado Department of Education. (2011, August 11). Unit of academic standards.
Retrieved February 26, 2012, from CDE: improving academic achievement:

Kubiszyn, T., & Borich, G. (2010). Educational testing and measurement: classroom
application and practice (Ninth Edition ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey, US: John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Naz, B. A. (2009, July 23). Presentation on instructional objectives. Retrieved
February 26, 2012, from ERIC:

To see a hard copy please see attached.